,xxix ENVELOPMENT OF PERSIA 461 roted her energies to making good against Khokand ;he positions she had gained. In 1860 the Khan of Khokand attacked the Russian position in Semirechia, which province had been occupied six years before. The Russians replied by proceeding igainst Tashkent, which was captured in 1864. In the following year the territory between the Aral Sea and the Issik Kul lake was formed into the frontier province of Turkestan. This marked the completion of the first stage in the great advance. Russian Relations with Bokhara, 1842-1868.—In 1842 the Amir of Bokhara, alarmed at the occupation of Kabul by Great Britain, had appealed to Russia. That Power despatched a mission under Colonel Butenef, which was at first received with the highest honours. But the Kabul catastrophe 'reacted on the situation at Bokhara, where Stoddart and later Conolly, who had joined him, were imprisoned ; and the Russian envoy, who had done his best to save Stoddart, was dismissed with studied dis- courtesy by the Amir, who no longer feared the English. More than twenty years later, in 1865, the Amir of Bokhara took the offensive against the great northern Power by occupying Khojent, and imprisoned four Russian envoys who were found in the city. In the following year the Russians, after a decisive victory over the Bokharans at Irgai, reoccupied Khojent. In 1868 the Bokharan army was again defeated ^nd Samarcand was occupied. Shortly afterwards peace was made with the Amir, who ceded Samarcand and paid a war indemnity. The annexation, in 1876, of the entire Khanate of Khokand rounded off the conquests of Russia in the eastern sphere of operations, and by establishing her at Charjui on the Oxus made her a neighbour of Persia and increased her influence at Teheran. These campaigns may be looked upon as constituting the second stage of the advance. The Conquest of Khiva, 1873.—The third stage was the conquest of Khiva. In 1869 the Russians established themselves at Krasnovodsk, to-day the starting-point of the Central Asian Railway, and shortly afterwards at.